Why Nepal was never captured or conquered by any country of the world?
During the 18th century, most of the current south Asian countries (almost all) were under the British Empire. Nepal was the only country in South Asia that was able to stand and fight against the British Empire. In fact, Nepal was expanding its kingdom in the East and west. It was growing as a dominant country while on the other hand, East India company was gradually capturing India.
East India Company wanted to expand its business through Nepal to Tibet and East Asia, so they made constant efforts to persuade the Nepalese Government to allow for trade. Being Nepal in assembled form and good at the economy as compared neighbours concluded the decision not to allow east India company to trade through Nepal.
Most of you might be thinking Britain spared Nepal and Britain never wanted to take Nepal. But don’t be silly who spares millions of sq. Km of productive and economic land if it can be captured easily. Well, I don’t think anyone will spare a sing sq. Km of the property if it’s worth some money. Even you would capture a single sq meter of land if it worth money unless you don’t belong 1% of rare man as the only thing that mattered during those periods were productive land.
So the question is, what was it? What stopped East India Company from expanding its coverage towards nature. Well, the question has become a mystery of the century. But I will try to give some of the most popular and preferable reasons that stopped Britain expand its hands of control towards Nepal.
Some reason behind why Nepal was not Colonized during 18 the century:
- Gurkhas were great warriors, and it was complicated to get victory over them: If you know a bit about history especially Britain colonization part than you should have heard about the bravery and the greatness of Gorkha warriors. Gurkhas are renowned as some of the bravest warriors in the world sacrificed their lives in saving Nepal in the East and west.
- Geographical condition of Nepal: Most parts of Nepal was Hilly covered in the dense forest creating difficulties for the British army in fighting the war. Due to the unhabituated harsh climatic condition, Britain was less likely to win the war front to front, which ultimately helped Nepal becoming the winning side for a short period.
- Nepal was economically not much relevant to Britain as compared to some other areas of current India, and they had clearly understood about the difficulties and manpower required to get victory over Nepal, so they come with an idea to make the treaty.
Causes of Anglo Nepal war (Gurkha war):
Nepal government was totally aware of what the East India company was doing in India, so the Nepalese GovernmentGovernment was not in favour of any trade with foreign. The immediate cause of the Anglo Gorkha war was a dispute over Butwal between East India Company and Nepal. As expected, the East India Company sent a warning letter to the GovernmentGovernment of Nepal to left Butwal. Reminding you that Nepal was actually a powerful country during 18s and as every country at the position of power is not likely to give land easy handed. So the GovernmentGovernment of Nepal didn’t agree to leave Butwal which ultimately started Anglo Gurkha war.
The leading causes of the Anglo Gurkha war:
- Economic cause: East India company wanted to trade with Tibet through Nepal. When the Nepalese Government did not agree to allow for trade, they decided to attack Nepal.
- Affect in colonizing India: East India Company was expanding its power of control all over India while Nepal was uniting and was expanding towards India, which caused adverse impact colonizing India.
- Climatic Cause: As British Armies were habited to cold environment and India was not favourable for them. Hence, they were in search of place from where they can take all control and has the right climatic conditions and Nepal had a similar environment.
The Anglo-Nepalese War, also known as the Gurkha War, fought between the Kingdom of Gurkha and East India Company started on November 1, 1814. It ended with the Sugauli treaty in 1816 is considered as one of the most important treaties in the history of Nepal. During the war, Britain loosed many troops, while Nepal lost not much. You can imagine from this how brave were Gorkhas only 70 soldiers( including old peoples, children and around 30 -40 adult) led by Balbhadra Kunwar killed about 1000–1500 British at Nalapani(Was part of Nepal currently of India, great Gorkha warrior fought at this place to defend Nepal).
So, finally, when east India company realized that they had to lose many soldiers to invade Nepal, the war came to an end with Sugauli Treaty at Singha Durbar, Kathmandu, Nepal (first discussed in 1921) and the final treaty signed in 1923 December 21. Nepal loosed one-third of its party as a consequence of the agreement. Britain was in search of cold places, so they took places such as Nalapani, Kumar, Gadwal, Darjiling.
Consequences of the Sugauli Treaty:
- Nepal loosed one-third of Nepalese territories like Sikkim in the East, Kumaon and Garhwal in the west and some Terai in the south.
- The friendship between Nepal and Britain
- Britain would be allowed to recruit Gurkhas for military service.
Map of great Nepal :
Some of you might be thinking I am trying to say Nepal won the war and Britain lost. But I actually meant Nepal was a winning side for a short while and seeking the possible future consequences of the war Nepal agreed to the treaty.
- Indeed the British Empire was capable of capturing Nepal, but it wasn’t easy as much as it was capturing small divided kingdoms of current India.
- Though Nepal was outnumbered in the war, one brave Gurkha warrior was capable of killing more than 20 enemies.
- It would cost a thousand skilled manpower and a considerable amount of capital to capture entire Nepal and also a measurable amount of time. It was better to make a treaty for both sides rather than the long-lasting war where both sides could lose a lot of manpower.
- It could be concluded, Nepal was never captured by any Europian country of the world from the day Nepal evolved as a country in the universe.
- If you don’t agree with the fact that Nepal remained independent from the day Nepal has existed you are free to write your thoughts below in the comment section and I will try my best to update it with some of your kind thoughts.
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